Oskar Kokoschka (1886 – 1980)
Oskar Kokoschka, pintor expresionista, poeta y dramaturgo vienés, (Pöchlarn, Austria, 1 de Marzo de 1886- Villeneuve, Ginebra, 22 de Febrero de 1980). Formado, a partir de 1907, en la afamada Escuela de Artes y Oficios de Viena en la que de manera simultánea comenzó a trabajar. Tan sólo unos años después, con la celebración de la exposición de la secesión de Viena y los talleres vieneses, presentó su primera colección de aguafuertes y dibujos, repleta de desnudos femeninos en su temática. Representaciones que de esta manera, causaron un gran impacto en un sector de la sociedad vienesa, la cual consideró su arte provocador, escandaloso y despreciable. Hechos que inmediatamente después ocasionaron el debilitamiento ostensible de la Academia de las Artes, y la retirada de la pensión económica percibida por el joven Kokoschka, con la reducción consecuente de sus posibilidades y recursos.
No obstante, frente al aluvión de criticas vertidas sobre su persona, referentes austriacos fundamentales como el pintor Gustav Klimt o el arquitecto Adolf Loos, lo reconocieron como el más espléndido artista de su generación. Incluso Loos, se convirtió en la figura clave para su desarrollo como artista, siendo el mecenas, consejero e incluso agente encargado de facilitarle la entrega o realización de sus obras. Asimismo, sus consejos inclinaron la obra de Kokoscha hacia la eliminación de su estilo anterior, para desde este momento poner en relieve las temáticas y situaciones realistas. Por ello, y hasta 1923, se dedica en exclusiva a la producción de retratos, en los que intenta captar el carácter de sus modelos de una manera exhaustiva, valiéndole este método el sobrenombre de “el Freud de la pintura“, por el pormenorizado estudio psicológico que hacia de sus modelos. Unos retratos cuya expresión se focaliza en el rostro, centrados en mostrar el busto o el medio cuerpo únicamente, y donde predomina el uso de tonos opacos y apagados, huyendo en cualquier caso de los resaltes cromáticos.
Exiliado en Berlín durante 1910 y 1911, debido a la persecución pública sufrida en su Viena natal al ser señalado como un artista degenerado, entra en contacto con los miembros de Die Brucke(El puente). Reconocido en la capital alemana, publica en la revista Waldems De Sturm (la tormenta) una treintena de sus creaciones, e incluso estrena su célebre obra teatral El asesino, esperanza de las mujeres, de la cual realiza un cártel que versa sobre los contenidos del libreto, con el binomio amor-muerte en su trasfondo argumental e ilustrativo. Su retorno a Viena, se produce en 1912 sin la mejora apreciable de su imagen, auque él continua con su prolífica carrera. De este periodo resalta una serie de cuadros de temática esencialmente religiosa como la crucifixión (1912), La anunciación (1911) o Huida a Egipto (1912).
En 1912, da comienzo su idilio amoroso con Alma Mahler, la que fuera esposa y ahora viuda del compositor Gustav Mahler; relación íntima que originó diversos retratos como La tempestad o La novia del viento (1914). Sin embargo en 1915, ella pone fin al noviazgo y se casa con el arquitecto Walter Gropius. Esta ruptura sentimental, resultó ser muy lesiva para el autor que sumido en una profunda depresión, transformó plenamente su estilo anterior e incluyo en numerosas obras, referencias directas a un noviazgo del que no asumía su final.
Dedicado, a partir de 1919, a la docencia en la academia de Artes de Dresde, en los años sucesivos comenzó a representar paisajes urbanos (distantes de su expresionismo natural), ser reconocido a nivel nacional y convertirse en un viajero incansable. Autor de referencia, en cualquier caso, el tiempo y su arte le acabaron dando la razón.
“Oskar Kokoschka is the third in the great trio of Viennese artists, and the one whose reputation is currently hardest to assess. He was born at Pöchlarn on the Danube in 1886. His father was Czech and came from a well known family of Prague goldsmiths. He was perhaps rather work-shy: Kokoschka later said of him, ‘From him I learned to endure poverty rather than work slavishly at distasteful work.’ His mother came from the mountain region of Styria, and claimed to have second sight. Oskar was the second of their four sons; when he was still a child the family moved to Vienna where his elder brother died in 1891.
“As a boy, Kokoschka was not particularly attracted to art. He wanted to study chemistry but was recommended for a scholarship at the Vienna School of Arts and Crafts by a teacher who had been impressed by his drawings. He entered the School in 1905, the year in which he started to paint in oils, and in 1907 he found work at the Wiener Werkstötte. Soon he began to expand his activities to literature. Asked to produce a children’s book, he wrote his own text, Die Traumenden Knaben (The Dreaming Youths), which was scarcely suitable for the young, but made a good basis for his distinctive illustrations. He also wrote two plays, Sphinx und Strohamann (The Sphinx and the Scarecrow), and Mürder, Hoffnung der Frauen(Murderer, Hope of Women): these are now considered to mark the beginnings of Expressionist theatre in Germany.
“In 1908 Kokoschka’s work was shown in the Kunstschau exhibition in Vienna, which featured the avant-garde group around Klimt. His contributions were a centre of controversy because of their Expressionist violence, and he was dismissed from the School of Arts and Crafts as a result. In 1909 his work was shown at the second Kunstschau, and his two plays were performed in the little open-air theatre attached to the exhibition buildings. There was a tremendous scandal because of their violence, and their unconventional and apparently irrational structure, and even the Werkstötte would no longer employ him. At one time he managed to keep alive by betting on his own capacity to drink visitors to Vienna under the table. His chief protector was the pioneer Modernist architect Adolf Loos, who secured portrait commissions for him. One portrait was of the satirical writer Karl Kraus, editor of Die Facket (The Torch). Kraus said of this: ‘It is quite possible that those who know me will not recognize me. But it is certain that those who do not know me will recognize me.’
“In 1910 Kokoschka’s luck changed. He went to Berlin and was taken up by Herwarth Walden, the energetic owner-editor of Der Sturm, who commissioned him to do title-page drawings for the magazine and used one for almost every issue. He was also given a contract by the powerful dealer Paul Cassirer. In 1911 he returned to Vienna and was appointed as assistant teacher at the very school which had dismissed him. He had a show at the Hagenbund in Vienna, of which the opening reception was attended by Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the heir to the throne, who exclaimed indignantly: ‘This fellow’s bones ought to be broken in his body!’ Most important of all, in 1911 he began a passionate affair with Alma Mahler, the widow of the great composer, an elegant society beauty considerably older than himself. The year 1912 was better still – he was able to give up teaching and showed at the Sonderbund exhibition in Cologne, which united the whole German-speaking avant garde, and with the Blaue Reiter in Munich.
“By 1913 his relationship with Alma Mahler was beginning to show signs of strain. They travelled to Italy together, and on one occasion visited the Naples aquarium. Kokoschka watched an insect sting and paralyse a fish, before devouring it, and at once associated the scene with the woman by his side.
“He was still a controversial figure: when he began teaching art at a smart Viennese girls’ school whose headmistress was known for her progressive views, some of the parents objected so strongly that the Austrian government actually banned him from teaching. War, when it broke out, seemed a release from an impossible relationship and an impossible situation. Adolf Loos used his influence to have him appointed Lieutenant in an exclusive regiment of dragoons with a particularly glamorous uniform. As soon as the appointment was gazetted Loos had a postcard made of Kokoschka in his finery which was sold in shops alongside those showing leading actresses.
“At the beginning of 1915 Kokoschka was seriously wounded – and briefly taken prisoner – in Galicia: he suffered a head injury and a bayonet wound to the lung. He spent a period of convalescence in Vienna, but was then sent to the Isonzo Front, where his health soon broke down completely. He went to Stockholm to consult a brain specialist and then to Dresden to try and recover his health. His anguish was as much mental as physical, and was perhaps connected with his residual feelings for Alma Mahler. To exorcize his obsession he commissioned a life-sized doll, complete and life-like in all details, which he treated like a living companion – it has even been said that he escorted it to the opera.
“After the end of the war the political situation in Dresden was very unstable, just as it was everywhere else in Germany, and Kokoschka formed part of a small, left-wing bohemian group. In the newly liberal climate of 1919 he was officially appointed Professor at the Dresden Academy, and this post brought with it a beautiful house and studio. Outside Dresden, his reputation continued to rise. The composer Paul Hindemith set Murderer, Hope of Women to music, and it received numerous performances, among them one at the Dresden State Opera. In 1922 Kokoschka was invited to exhibit at the Venice Biennale. His health had now improved and he was becoming restless. He resigned his post at the Dresden Academy in 1924, simply giving a note to the porter and leaving the city before his intentions had been discovered. A period of travel followed, financed by the proceeds of his now lucrative Cassirer contract. Using Munich as his main base he went all over Europe, and also to North Africa, Egypt, Turkey and Palestine. The year 1931 brought great success for him, despite the darkening political horizon: he had a show at the Kunsthalle in Mannheim which Cassirer’s successors brought to the Galerie Georges Petit in Paris, where it did well with the Parisian public. However, from this triumph there also came a conflict. Kokoschka demanded more independence from his dealers; they, in turn, were anxious to establish his work as a staple commodity in the art market. Kokoschka broke with them, and there was an acrimonious exchange of letters in the Frankfurter Zeitung.
“In 1932 Kokoschka once again showed at the Venice Biennale, but now his reception was stormy. Mussolini made it plain that he disliked Kokoschka’s art, and the pro-Nazi press in Germany seized the opportunity to attack him. By 1933 his finances were severely strained, and he left Paris for the provinces and then went to Vienna to be with his mother. He felt ill at ease in a city ruled by the fascist administration of Chancellor Dollfuss, and after his mother’s death later that year he went to Prague and took Czech citizenship. The Austrian government tried to lure him back by offering him the Directorship of the School of Arts and Crafts, and in 1937 he was the subject of a major retrospective at the Osterreiches Museum für Kunst und Industrie This perhaps meant less to him than the fact that his work was also on show that year in the Degenerate Art Exhibition in Munich – at the same time more than four hundred of his works were removed from German museums. In Prague he had met Olda Pavlovska, who was later to become his wife, and he was busy expressing support for the Republic cause in Spain.
“The Munich Agreement Of 1938 indicated that Prague was no longer a safe refuge. In September Kokoschka left for England. This was the logical choice, but it was also the only place in Europe where his art was very little known. The Kokoschkas were desperately poor. In 1939 they moved to Polperro in Cornwall where Oskar made watercolours of the local scenery and Olda ran a pastry shop to help their finances. The next year, however, they returned to London, as Kokoschka was convinced that their neighbours were suspicious of them. London bored and depressed him:
What am I to do in this hole [their London flat] ? I must invent new subjects for my paintings. I am quite starved for something to see. When the spring comes I feel how it stirs in me as in a migrant bird, and I become quite nervous: I must leave town and paint something real – a grasshopper or something. When I come back to town the landscapes turn into political pictures. My heart aches, but I cannot help it. I cannot just paint landscapes without taking any notice of what happens.
“His fortunes began to look up as soon as the war was over. In 1945 he received a symbolic tribute in war-battered Vienna: an exhibition shared with Klimt and Schiele, both long dead. In 1947 there was a large Kokoschka retrospective at the Kunsthalle in Berne, and in 1952 a room was devoted to his work at the 26th Venice Biennale, Kokoschka had become a British citizen in 1947, but was not eager to remain in a country which he felt had slighted him. In 1953 he began to run his School of Seeing at the Internationale Sommerakademie für Bildende Kunst in Salzburg, thus re-establishing his ties with the Austrian milieu in which he began his career, and in the same year he settled permanently at Villeneuve on Lake Geneva. He was now once again an extremely celebrated artist, but he had drifted away from the post-war art world, and, though much respected, was a marginal figure by the time of his death in 1980.”